Dec. 1993 The State of California passes new legislation. All Californian dentists who use Dental Amalgam must post the following warning clearly in their dental surgeries. All Amalgam manufacturers must display this warning on all amalgam sold in California:


This Office uses amalgam filling materials which contain and expose you to Mercury, a chemical known to the state of California to cause birth defects and other reproductive harm. Please consult your dentist for more information.

FACT: There is not one research article which demonstrates the safety of Dental Amalgam as a Non-Toxic substance!

The First Deception

The metallic silvery black fillings in your mouth are often called Silver Amalgam fillings! They are in fact Mercury Amalgams Fillings.
They are made from an alloy of; Silver, Tin, Zinc, Copper which is mixed with 50%. MERCURY.

It is estimated that the average Amalgam Filling will release up to half of its Mercury content over a ten year period ( 50% Corrosion Rate). It will therefore release between 68 and 130 Micrograms per Day per Filling. [35]Ð The Australian Dental Association on 6/8/93 claimed that Mercury comes out of the fillings in Nanogram quantities – this is in the order of thousands less than what is actually released

Once Mercury Gets Into Your Body

Retention of mercury in the body is at least 1 mcg /filling /day. [19, 20]
Brain levels of Mercury are directly proportional to the number of surfaces of Amalgam Fillings in the mouth. [15,26]
Mercury remains in the blood for only a few minutes. After this it is locked into the cells of the body [ 18, 21, 27]
We excrete far less than we absorb from our fillings. This is called ‘Retention Toxicity’. [61]

The World Health Organisation Speaks Out

Environmental Health Criteria 118 1991: In 1991 the World Health Organisation published its findings on environmental exposure to Mercury. This is the first time Dental Amalgam Fillings were included as a dietary source of Mercury. Their findings were that the main source of Mercury exposure and absorption is from dental Amalgam Fillings – up to ten times the amount you will get from fish and sea food. They also concluded that there is NO safe level of Mercury vapour. The Mercury found in fish is Methyl Mercury & is often detoxified by the presence of Selenium.

How Does Mercury Enter Your Body?

Release & Transport

Mercury escapes from Amalgam Filling as; Mercury Vapour, Elemental Mercury & Mercury Ions. Mercury release is increased with increase in; Temperature, Grinding, Tooth Brushing & Electrical current It is transported around the body by Arterial & Venous Blood , Lymphatic System, Nerve Fibres [35,34, 26] 80% of Mercury vapour is absorbed through the lungs. [ 41,32]

Oral Mercury Vapour

Amalgam Fillings in the mouth will produce Mercury vapour levels from 6 to 150 micrograms per cubic meter. [1,15, 16,17,19,20,32,37]
Paints which contained Mercury were banned for producing Mercury vapour levels of 2 to 3 micrograms per cubic meter.

Where Does the Mercury Go ?

Brain Damage

The Mercury levels in the brain have been shown to be in a direct proportion to the number of Tooth Surfaces covered by Amalgam Fillings in the mouth. [ 15,17,20]

‘The Brain is the CRITICAL target organ for Mercury Vapour & Methyl-Mercury and is most significant in cases of Chronic, Low- Level Exposure to Mercury Vapour’ [59]

This is the basis of what is called “Micro-Mercurialism “
Mercury Vapour from Amalgam Fillings will pass through the lining of the mouth and nose and be transported directly to the brain. From here it is transported to all parts of the brain and spinal chord. Symptoms are dependant on which part of the brain is affected. [15,20,21,35]

Mercury crosses, the Blood-Brain Barrier. This is the system which maintains the central nervous system free of organisms and toxins. These levels will severely disturb cellular function and reduce the growth of nerve fibres at much lower levels [35]

Dentists regularly implant Mercury Amalgam Fillings directly into bone, in the form of Retrograde Amalgam fillings (which are a filling placed at the end of the root). There is an item number for this procedure, it is condoned by the Australian Dental Association & it is considered the treatment of choice by many dentists.
Would any branch of medicine allow the implantation of Mercury into bone?
Micro-mercurialism (long term, low level, Mercury poisoning) is one reason mercury is so dangerous. Fatigue, short term memory loss, poor concentration, obsessive, phobic, compulsive behaviour, through to suicidal tendencies are the early neurological symptoms. Shakes and neuro-motor interference are usually later symptoms. [35]

Kidney Malfunction

Mercury has been shown to cause a 50% reduction in kidney filtration function after just two months in the mouth. (Animal studies) [63]

Weakened Immune System

Mercury will rapidly and always effect the Immune System. This creates an environment in the body for the growth of organisms and the production of further disease.
Mercury will bind strongly to Selenium, a trace element which is needed for cellular health. Latest research from Austria shows a conclusive connection between reduced levels of Selenium and increased risk of cancers [67]
Mercury binds to proteins. These proteins which have the Mercury bound to them, will look like foreign matter to the Immune System. A number of Auto-Immune diseases including Lupus, Lichen Planus, Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis may develop. Mercury has been implicated as a causative factor in development of Endometriosis. [1,15, 18,20, 22, 26, 28, 32, 35, 36, 46, 47, 49, 52, 58, 64]


Mercury binds to Haemoglobin in the red blood cell and will reduce the amount of oxygen which can be carried in the blood – a major cause of Fatigue. Mercury at a level of 1 part per ten million will actively destroy the membrane of red blood cells. [36, 49, 23, 18]


Heart function will be effected by both the electrical currents and the Mercury. eg; tachycardia, increased blood pressure, arrhythmia’s.
Mercury causes damage to the walls of the small blood vessels in the form of Micro-Angiopathies. The result is reduced or no blood supply to the tissues which will cause cell damage and cell death.
eg; in the heart this would be called a heart attack – in the extremities it may be called Reynaud’s syndrome. [35]
Because Mercury is stored principally in the fatty tissues it may promote an increase in the levels of cholesterol. Some (anecdotal) reports suggest that when the Amalgam Fillings are removed, both the cholesterol and triglyceride levels may drop by themselves. [37, 49]

Alzheimer’s Disease

Latest research links Mercury levels in the brain with Alzheimer’s Disease. Mercury is the metal found in greatest concentrations, in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients.

Mercury & Your Baby

Mercury, from Amalgam Fillings will cross the placenta and the breast milk.
Mercury is concentrated in the foetus and breast milk 8X more than in the mother’s tissue.
In the Foetus and infant, the highest concentrations are in the Pituitary Gland, Liver and Heart.
Neither the Australian Dental Association nor any medical authority have been able to demonstrate a safe level of Mercury in the pituitary gland of a foetus. [ 3, 4, 5,20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 31, 32, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46]
Tissue levels of Mercury in the foetus, newborn and young child, are directly proportional to the number of amalgams in the mother’s mouth.[65]

If you are pregnant, Do Not have Amalgam Fillings inserted or removed if possible. Ideally do not go into a surgery where Amalgam Fillings are used, as the Mercury vapour levels may be high enough to effect the health of the foetus.

Antibiotic Resistance

A 1993 research project has demonstrated that Mercury from Amalgam fillings will cause an increase in Antibiotic Resistance in the Bacteria of the gut and the mouth of primates. This could make relatively simple infections difficult to treat. [62]

The Battery Effect

Amalgam Fillings in the mouth will react with each other and with different metals, to form a battery. The electric currents, thus generated are in the micro amp range. This is in the same order of magnitude as that induced in a person standing under high tension power line. Our brains operate at a level of Nano amps which is 1000 times less than a micro amp. The higher the current the more Mercury will be released from the Amalgam Fillings. [20, 28, 29, 30, 35, 49, 60

Amalgam & Gold Can Really Cost You

The combination of Amalgam fillings, in the mouth , with other metals (eg. gold and stainless steel), will increase the electric currents in all the fillings. This will cause an increased release of Mercury from all fillings ( by up to 4 to 10 times ). Mercury will migrate through the tooth to the surrounding tissues. Root biopsy of a tooth with an Amalgam Filling will show Mercury up to 200 - 300 mcg per gram tissue. In a tooth with an Amalgam Filling covered by a gold crown you can find up to 1200 mcg per gram tissue. [31, 26] The Mercury is electrically pumped out of the Amalgam Filling. Therefore, any amalgam under crowns is not sealed off – it is still toxic. Most crowns are placed over existing amalgam fillings to reinforce them. It is not uncommon to find up to 15 different metals in the one tooth.

Effects on Dentists

Many scientific studies have demonstrated that dentists and staff are heavily poisoned and effected by Mercury; [1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 32, 35, 37,] -Infertility, spontaneous abortion and birthing problems up to twice the rest of the population [4, 5, 20, 52] -I. Q. levels reduced to one standard deviation below the rest of the population. [14] -The rate of glioblastomas (a form of brain cancer) is twice as high in dental personnel as the rest of the population.[ 15, 35] -Biopsies of dentists brains have shown up to 80 times the

Why Does Australia Lag Behind Other Countries?

  • The Australian Dental Association claim that Dental Amalgam is still the filling material of choice and that it is perfectly safe. There is not one scientific peer reviewed article to support this attitude.
  • Dental Amalgam has never been approved as a restorative material by either Australian or American Environmental Protection Agencies.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration do not and never have certified Mixed Dental Amalgam as an implant material.
  • 1987 Federal Dept of Health in Germany issued an advisory warning against the use of dental amalgam in pregnant women. [66]
  • Since 1991 the Swedish Government pays 70% of the cost of removing Amalgam Filling from it’s citizens.
  • In November 1993 Sweden passed legislation placing a TOTAL BAN on the use of Amalgam Fillings to take effect from July 1997!
  • On 21 December 1993, Degusa AG, Germany’s largest manufacturer of amalgam announced that it would no longer be making the product.

The Australasian Society of Oral Medicine and Toxicology was formed by a group of dedicated dentists and doctors with the aim of educating the public and the professions about the concepts of Bio-Compatible Dentistry. It is a non profit organisation.
For the sake of your helath it is important that your dentist follow correct protocols for amalgam removal.

This document is authorised by the Australasian Society of Oral Medicine and Toxicology. Phone +64 2 867-1111

References :

1Sandra Denton MD : Proceedings of the First International Conference on Biocompatibility 1988
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This site is maintained and copyrighted 1994-1997 by Leif Hedegard. However, the article above is written and copyrighted by Dr Robert Gammal 1995, forwarded here after permission. Updated 16 November 1996. The www-address of this page is: